1. There are only two final destinations for human beings after the day of judgment, those two destinations being the final damnation of the old humanity in Adam, and the final salvation of the new humanity in Christ.
2. Throughout all history, God has kept a visible covenant people for Himself, intended to declare, model, test drive, instantiate, train for, grow toward, and otherwise approximate that final redeemed humanity.
3. Depending on location and era, that visible covenant people has ranged between a grotesque parody of that final redeemed humanity and a genuine approximation of it. As history grows toward its glorious consummation, the historical progress toward that final eschatological goal will be more and more unmistakeable.
4. But in either case this means that the rosters of names involved, those of the visible covenant people, and the final redeemed humanity, the elect, are not identical rosters.
5. God has always given His visible covenant people visible covenant markers. In our time of the new covenant, these markers are gospel and sacrament. God is sketching His preliminary drawing of His final redeemed humanity in charcoal — Word and water, bread and wine. It does not yet appear what the final oil painting will be like.
6. The visible covenant people therefore necessarily contains two kinds of people, regenerate and unregenerate — lines that will be used in the painting forever and lines that will be erased.
7. Christ is always present and offered in His gospel and through His sacraments. When an unregenerate covenant member does not close with Christ, the issue is his absence, not Christ’s. With their lips they approach Him, but their hearts are far away. Christ was not far away, they were far away.
8. When covenant members who are not elect are erased from the preliminary drawing, this means there was something wrong with their presence there from the beginning. God is all wise, and so their presence was no mistake. At the same time, that presence does not function at all like the presence of the elect.
9. Because the covenant markers can be abused by unregenerate covenant members, these covenant markers cannot be a ground of assurance. True evangelical faith can and should use them as a means of assurance, but never as the ground of assurance.
10. Covenant markers can never be a ground of assurance because unbelief and/or apostasy can be hidden and secret. Countless hypocrites have had all their external papers in order. If externals were a ground of assurance, then hypocrites could have true assurance. But a true Christian is one inwardly, and real baptism is of the heart, by the Spirit.
11. Believers who struggle with assurance should constantly be encouraged by pastors, family and friends to look to Christ wherever He has promised to be — in the proclaimed Word, in His people, in the sacraments, in the reading of Scripture and prayer.
12. When such believers continue to struggle, they need to be strongly encouraged to repent of and abandon false and unbiblical notions of what a “true” conversion must look like. If God had wanted everyone to have a Damascus road experience, He would have given everyone sandals and a horse.
13. When a professing believer comes to question his assurance, and his life is one characterized by drunkenness, fornication, a foul mouth, bitterness, backstabbing, out-of-control parties, pot smoking and the like, questioning his assurance is exactly what he ought to be doing, and about time. It is not pastoral care to try to squelch questions that have been a long time coming. People who live that way will not inherit the kingdom of God, and should not be allowed to think they are going to.
14. To repeat, for such persons, we ought not to ask why Christ didn’t show up in the covenant markers for them. Christ was always present there. Somebody else didn’t show up.
15. A person who shows up physically to the covenant markers with habitual and characteristic sin in his life, of the sort that Scripture repeatedly says is inconsistent with inheritance of eternal life, does not need to be told to “believe.” He needs to be told to “repent and believe.”
16. When they are genuine, repentance and faith are two descriptions of the same motion, considered from two different vantage points. Sin and salvation stand opposite one another, and so to turn away from the former and toward the latter can be described as two actions — either as repentance or as faith — while being at the same time the same motion.
17. This means that repentance and faith are inseparable. One cannot be removed without simultaneously removing the other.
18. Therefore faith in the presence of sermons or sacraments that does not result in actual detestation of sin is not the kind of faith that can derive any grace whatever from any of the available means of grace.
19. Wise pastoral care does not want to in any way encourage this kind of impotent faith. It is not a faith that gets it part way right, not in any meaningful sense. A corpse is not partly resurrected, and dead faith is not most of the way there.
20. It is possible to encourage weak believers who have a true but wavering faith and simultaneously disrupt the hypocritical assumptions of those who want to hide from God by dint of great noise and observances. Sound preaching is good for both of them, and the same kind of preaching is good for both of them.
21. The new birth is the one thing needful. It is the only reality that creates repentance and faith together, which is the only way any of this makes any sense.
I would love an exposition on the blog of why “pot smoking” was on the list in the aptly numbered point 13!
One thing is for sure James…He didn’t put it on there all willy nilly like. There was intent.
Amen to your 21 theses, especially #’s 9-10. Thank you. Is there a door somewhere where you might nail them?
Kinda went off the rails at point 2. Who are the Covenant people now? All nations. Who are the priesthood working within this New Covenant domain? The regenerate. So baptism doesn’t put anyone under “Covenant obligations” that they were not already under. There is no “middle wall.” Baptism is the beginning of testimony. If someone isn’t regenerate then they aren’t qualified to be in the priesthood. But even if they apostatise and are excommunicated, they are still “in” the New Covenant, and called to repent along with everyone else. So, you went back on the rails around point 16. Lots… Read more »
Thank you Pastor.
This was extremely helpful. Thank you.
So that promise of sorts that God has kept a visible covenant people — that promise might have been for a totally bogus group?
How comforting that maybe some of the folks of the visible covenant community might actually be going to heaven!
Eric, the ones going to Heaven are the ones who became formal members.
Grew from 10 to 21, I see!
I’m sure you’ve mentioned this elsewhere, pastor, but how does Jer 31:34 fit in here? #15 above is saying that we still have to teach our covenant brothers to know the Lord.
I’m so busted!
Doug Wilson wrote: 9. Because the covenant markers can be abused by unregenerate covenant members, these covenant markers cannot be a ground of assurance. True evangelical faith can and should use them as a means of assurance, but never as the ground of assurance. 10. Covenant markers can never be a ground of assurance because unbelief and/or apostasy can be hidden and secret. Countless hypocrites have had all their external papers in order. If externals were a ground of assurance, then hypocrites could have true assurance. But a true Christian is one inwardly, and real baptism is of the heart,… Read more »
Well put, as usual, Doug. But it does beg a question in my mind: If all of the unregenerate, including children: . . . cannot see anything desirable in God or Christ. . . . lack the spiritual ability to appraise spiritual truths. . . . are only free and capable of resisting the Holy Spirit. . . . are under the control of a darkened understanding. . . . are so morally blind that they uniformly prefer evil instead of good. . . . have no desire for reconciliation with God. . . . have no pulse, no warmth,… Read more »
The Covenant People = All Nations?
From whence that assertion?
Do you mean guys like Caiaphas, Julius III, or Alexander VI?
RFB, (You can call me Doug (or maybe DS) if it helps avoid confusion.) To your question: Yes, and Peter, Paul, Mary, and all the kids in the nursery, Sunday School, Home School, etc. Are they dead in trespasses and sins as defined by Calvinists in the above reply? Are they merely unregenerate “covenant members” who have not been given the ability to believe? If Esau, being the child of believing parents, had died at two years old would there have been any hope of heaven for his soul? If not, should we assume that other dying infants and small… Read more »
Hi Moor – Pastor Wilson’s “Covenant membership” definition is confusing and unbiblical. There is no longer any “middle wall.”
This might help: “Drawing Crooked With Covenant Markers.” http://bit.ly/1smdKq9
Hey! I have sandals. I guess I’m halfway there.
Hello Doug and commentarians (is that a word? Like “complementarian” without the commitment?), Regarding the “covenant markers” path to assurance – yes, we should examine our lives every day. Repentance is a daily business. But depending on the particular day, and perhaps the previous day, this can be very depressing. “Why am I not making more progress in dealing with X and Y? Why is Z such a problem for me?” Etc. Even as evidence of conversion’s effects, not its cause, our daily lives are too often poor indicators of that event. We might say “well on average I’m now… Read more »
12. When such believers continue to struggle, they need to be strongly encouraged to repent of and abandon false and unbiblical notions of what a “true” conversion must look like. If God had wanted everyone to have a Damascus road experience, He would have given everyone sandals and a horse. Thanks a lot for this, Pastor Wilson. “coincidentally” the Lord had just been showing me this basic truth recently… stubbornly, proudly insisting on some type of assurance not promised in the Bible. And oddly, this is not something I ever remember seeing in any of the Puritan writings on assurance… Read more »