Babel and Pentecost

“At thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore” (Ps. 16: 11)

The Basket Case Chronicles #166

There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification. Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me” (1 Cor. 14:10–11).

The miracle at Pentecost was a reversal of Babel, which meant that it was a unifying miracle. When God confused the tongues at Babel, the result was that men scattered, divided by their different languages. When God gave different languages at Pentecost, the intent was to move men in the opposite direction, to gather them all to Christ. At Babel, the different languages scattered. At Pentecost, the different languages gathered. They all heard, in their own tongues, “the wonderful works of God” being declared (Acts 2:11).

God has set the direction, and so our worship services should continue to move in that same direction. There are many voices in the world and all of them, Paul says, have specific signification. There is a meaning there, but if I don’t know the meaning, what effect does that have? It has the effect of making the speaker a barbarian to the listener, and the listener a barbarian to the speaker. But God’s purpose in the church is to make us all members of the same household, the same holy nation (1 Pet. 2:9). We are not supposed to be foreigners to one another.

The word barbarian came from this idea of what alien chatter sounds like. When someone is a foreigner talking away aimlessly in my presence, I am going to tag him with an onomatopoeic label – they sound like they are saying nothing other than bar bar bar bar. And so, Paul says, don’t do that to your brothers in church. And if you withhold from your brother the signification of what you have said, that is exactly what you are doing. You are exiling your brother, who ought to live right next door to your meaning, and you are exiling him to a distant and barbarous land.

When you do this in church, you are introducing the tongues of Babel, and not the tongues of Pentecost.

Tangled Blatts

“At thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore” (Ps. 16: 11)

The Basket Case Chronicles #165

And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? for ye shall speak into the air” (1 Cor. 14:7–9)

Paul’s argument here is a fortiori, a “how much more” argument. A melody cannot be made out apart from a distinction of notes, whether from a pipe, or harp. And if a trumpet gives a series of tangled blatts, how will the troops know to get ready for battle? Unless there is distinction in the notes, the whole operation is just a disturbance in the air. In the same way, speaking in an unknown tongue apart from interpretation is just so much noise.

Therefore, in a Christian worship service clarity and ease of understanding are to be prized. We are to stand opposed to anything that gets in the way of such understanding, even if that something is edifying to this person or that one individually. The body needs to be able to say amen.

Private Edification Kept Private

“At thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore” (Ps. 16: 11)

The Basket Case Chronicles #164

Now, brethren, if I come unto you speaking with tongues, what shall I profit you, except I shall speak to you either by revelation, or by knowledge, or by prophesying, or by doctrine?” (1 Cor. 14:6).

Paul allows that speaking in tongues in private is an edifying activity. A man by himself can edify himself by speaking in tongues (v. 4). He may be ministered to in the spirit because he is the only one in the room. But if there are others in the room, then their edification is only possible if there is content.

So, Paul says, if I come to you speaking in tongues, there is no profit in it. The only way there is profit is if content is given by one of three supernatural methods—revelation, knowledge, or prophesying—or by opening the Bible and teaching expositionally, which is doctrine.

Tongues speaking in a group (even when it is the genuine gift of tongues) has no point of edification. There is one good thing that can come from it, as we will see later in this chapter, but if love for your brother is your goal, tongues speaking in the congregation is to be discouraged.

The Point of Prophecy

“At thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore” (Ps. 16: 11)

The Basket Case Chronicles #163

But he that prophesieth speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. He that speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself; but he that prophesieth edifieth the church. I would that ye all spake with tongues, but rather that ye prophesied: for greater is he that prophesieth than he that speaketh with tongues, except he interpret, that the church may receive edifying” (1 Cor. 14:3–5).

The three elements of prophecy that are mentioned here are edification, exhortation, and comfort. This can happen when the prophesying is fresh revelation, as when Agabus spoke under the power of the Spirit, and it can also happen when the Holy Spirit empowers a man who is speaking expositionally from the text. In the former instance, the Spirit is giving new words, and in the latter He is keeping the preacher close to the words. In both instances, He is anointing the words. This identification of preaching with the gift of prophesy was common among the Puritans. For example, William Perkins wrote a book on preaching that was called The Art of Prophesying.

Aside from that use of terms, it is undeniable that in a modern healthy church, the three consequences of prophecy described here are the three consequences of good preaching—edification, exhortation, and comfort. Every preacher ought to aim for that, every time.

When someone speaks in a tongue, he himself is edified while no one else is. Tongues speaking closes in on itself. The man who prophesies edifies everyone. Paul wishes that everyone could speaking in tongues, but more than that, he wishes that they could all prophesy. This is because prophesy is greater than speaking in tongues, unless an interpretation of tongues accompanies it, so that the church may be edified. This is the reason why I believe that tongues + interpretation = prophesy. A man who speaks in tongues is not just speaking his thoughts in a language he never acquired naturally. He is speaking God’s thoughts, such that when the tongues are interpreted, it is the equivalent of prophesy. And so, Paul argues, in the congregation, why not just cut out the middle man?

An Unknown Known Language

For he that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men, but unto God: for no man understandeth him; howbeit in the spirit he speaketh mysteries” (1 Cor. 14:2).

The gift of tongues is an exercise in mystery. A man speaking in tongues is a man who is speaking mysteries in his spirit. It is a mystery because the language is unknown to those present, and unknown to him.

Because he is speaking to God, we know that God understands him. This means that the language is unknown, not that it is unknowable. It is an unknown tongue, which is not the same thing as gibberish.

When the disciples spoke in tongues at Pentecost, it happened that many foreign speakers were present in Jerusalem because of the festival. What Paul says here about tongue-speaking Corinth was not the case in Jerusalem. They began speaking in other tongues (glossa, Acts 2:4), and when a crowd gathered, they heard them speaking in their own languages (dialektos, Acts 2:6). We get the word dialect from that word. They were speaking in known languages.

The saints in Corinth were doing the same thing, but the languages were not known to anyone on the premises—we will learn what the point of that was a bit later in the chapter.

The Testimony of Jesus

“At thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore” (Ps. 16: 11)

The Basket Case Chronicles #161

Follow after charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy” (1 Cor. 14:1).

The justly famous thirteenth chapter of Corinthians has firmly established the ranking of the fruit of the Spirit over against the gifts of the Spirit. Out of faith, hope, and love, the greatest is love, and in his description of the fruit of the Spirit elsewhere, he lists love in the first place (Gal. 5:22). We saw this same truth earlier in this book. The Corinthians were gifted with every spiritual gift (1 Cor. 1:7) but that did not make them spiritual men (1 Cor. 3:1).

Having established this, he then turns to give us a ranking of the spiritual gifts themselves. Just as the fruit of the Spirit and the gifts of the Spirit are not equal, so also the gifts of the Spirit are not equal. That is why he says here that they are to pursue love in the first instance, and after that they are to desire the spiritual gifts. Once they have turned to the gifts, the gift to be valued above all the others is the gift of prophesy.

What is it to prophesy? The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19:10), and so to speak the Word of God faithfully, in such a way as to turn everyone to Jesus, is the spirit of prophecy. That spirit can come upon a man directly, as it did the prophets of old, or it can be given to a man ministerially, as he speaks authoritatively from the Scriptures.

Piecemeal Revelation

“At thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore” (Ps. 16: 11)

The Basket Case Chronicles #160

When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity” (1 Cor. 13:11–13).

In the previous verses, we were considering whether knowing in part or prophesying in part referred to the time of the older covenant or to the time prior to the eschaton. Is the arrival of the “perfect” to be understood as the completion of the canon, or as the resurrection of the dead. We now come to the place where I come down on the question—albeit gingerly.

When images are used in Scripture, one of our first questions should concern how that image is used in other places of Scriptures—and not what associations with that image might arise in our minds, for whatever reason.

The time prior to the “perfect” is described as the time of speaking and understanding in childish ways. This is not an image the Bible uses for our mortal lives, but it an image used for the time of God’s children under the old covenant. “Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster” (Gal. 3:24–25).

And Paul describes the process of “becoming a man” as one, which if it is not quite completed, is at least started. When I became a man . . . While “face to face” has an eschatological feel to it, the whole idea of knowing in part appears to apply to the time of the old covenant, as contrasted with the fullness of knowledge in the time of the New Testament.

Which Question Is It?

“At thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore” (Ps. 16: 11)

The Basket Case Chronicles #159

“Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away” (1 Cor. 13:8-10).

Love is never going to go out of style. There will never be a circumstance when love, when being like God, is inappropriate or unhelpful. Gifts can be put to a bad use, but fruit is what it is. The gifts that Paul has in mind here are the gifts of prophesying, the gift of tongues, and the gift of supernatural knowledge.

Even prior to the point where prophesy, tongues and knowledge “fail,” they are partial gifts, even in their prime. That which is partial is going to come to the place where it is entirely supplanted.

There are two main views concerning that which is “perfect.” Is this speaking of the time when the perfect revelation of Scripture is complete, and the canon is closed? Is that what Paul means by perfect here? Or is it an eschatological statement, saying that prophesy, tongues, and the gift of knowledge will “fail” when the resurrection occurs? I would tell you which one it is except for the fact that I, like the apostle here, know in part.

But in a remarkable display of even-handedness, I will simply point out that v. 12 (face to face, even as I am known) sounds eschatological, and that the discussion of failing gifts in v. 8 sounds like they are already starting to fail, and a statement in v. 10 that prophecy will be done away with in Heaven seems odd. Who ever thought that the spiritual gifts would be operative in the resurrection? “Will we need prophets after the Bible is complete?” seems like a reasonable and pertinent question. Whether we will need prophets in the throne room of God seems like an absurdity.